Curtiss-Wright CW-1 Junior

The Curtiss-Wright CW-1 Junior was a moderately priced sport aircraft produced before the Depression for the general public. Its affordability, short field capability, sturdy construction, low handling speed, and good visibility made it an easy and safe plane to fly. The Junior soon became the most popular flivver-type airplane of the early 1930s and represents a significant milestone in the "everyman" aircraft movement of the period.

Karl H. White, Walter Beech, and H. Lloyd Child designed and produced the Skeeter, later renamed the Junior, which was powered by a 3-cylinder 45 hp Szekely SR-3-O engine. The Museum's aircraft has a rich background of many years on the air show circuit performing the "Flying Farmer" routine in which a "bystander" attempts to fly the plane with comical but safe results. It was donated to the Museum in 1959.

Gift of Robert E. Maytag

Physical Description:
2-place parasol-wing silver and blue monoplane with 45hp Szekely SR-3 Cylinder Model O pusher engine.

Country of Origin
United States of America

Manufacturer
Curtiss Aeroplane Company

Date
1930-1932

Location
Steven F. Udvar-Hazy Center, Chantilly, VA
Hangar
Mary Baker Engen Restoration Hangar

Type
CRAFT-Aircraft

Materials
Fuselage - steel tube with fabric cover
Wings - wood with fabric cover
Dimensions
Wing span: 9 m (29 ft. 6 in.)
Length: 6.5 m (21ft. 3 in.)
Height: 2.2 m (7 ft. 4 in.)
Weight: 251.7 kgs (555 lbs.)

The CW-1 was a moderate-priced, sport aircraft produced before the Depression for mass-market appeal. Smaller and simpler than cabin aircraft such as the Curtiss Robin, Curtiss-Wright designed the Junior especially for the low-budget sportsman pilot and the fixed-base operator who wished to offer flying time at a rate within reach of the average flying populace. Easy to buy, easy to fly, and cheap to operate, the Junior soon became just about the most popular flivver-type airplane of the next few years.

The CW-1 grew out of a late 1920s wood structure, parasol monoplane design called the Buzzard, designed by Orval H. "Bud" Snyder, which was powered by a 2-cylinder ABC Scorpion engine. In 1930, Ralph S. Damon and Walter Beech, executives of the Curtiss-Robertson division of the Curtiss-Wright Corporation (Curtiss-Robertson eventually became the Curtiss-Wright Airplane Company), decided to market a light airplane to compete with the Aeronca C-2 and the American Eaglet which were about to come on the market. They obtained the design rights to the Buzzard, but the aircraft had such poor performance that it had to be redesigned.

The three persons credited with the design of the Junior, Karl H. White, Walter Beech, and H. Lloyd Child, labored to first produce the Skeeter, powered by a 3-cylinder 45 hp Szekely SR-3-O engine. The Skeeter's only resemblance to the Buzzard was that it was a pusher-type monoplane. It was first test-flown in October 1930, but engineering problems had to be solved before it would be ready for production. Later in the year the Skeeter was renamed the Junior and by December the aircraft was again test-flown and pronounced ready for production. The production Juniors were two-place, open cockpit parasol wing monoplanes, powered by the Szekely SR-3-O engine. By June 1931, 125 Juniors, each priced at $1,494, had been sold. It is estimated that at least 270 were built through 1931 and that 261 of those were issued registration numbers.

Company promotional material attributed the aircraft's success to price ("built to sell for the price of an automobile in the medium price class") and quality. The Junior had many admirable qualities: easy and safe in flight, short field capability, low handling speed, sturdy construction, low wing loading, and good visibility for the pilot that gave "amateur pilots factors which have hitherto been lacking in available airplanes." While much of this was true, the Junior had its problems. The Szekely engine was temperamental and had a habit of occasionally throwing a cylinder. This was solved by tying a steel cable around the cylinder heads, which although it could not keep the cylinder from being thrown, kept a thrown cylinder from being blown back into the propeller. Moreover, some accidents occurred on the ground when passengers in the rear cockpit walked into the propeller after deplaning. The Junior was modified as an amphibian and called the Duck, but an accident in which a pilot was killed after he put the aircraft into a shallow, inverted dive seriously damaged the aircraft's reputation.

That accident and decreasing sales put an end to the production of the Junior. Orders had fallen off drastically between the middle of 1931 and the end of the year, and by early 1932, sales came to a dead halt. Meanwhile, Karl White left for the Naval Aircraft Factory and Walter Beech went to Wichita, Kansas, to form his own company. Curtiss-Wright officials in Buffalo, New York, ordered that the design and production of the Junior be terminated and that the plant in St. Louis be turned over to the production of the T32 Condor.

Despite its brief history, the Curtiss-Wright Junior is a significant aircraft in the NASM collection because it represents a milestone in the so-called "everyman" aircraft movement in the United States. This movement, which began before the Depression and lasted over a period of two decades, sought to produce a mass-market, affordable, personal aircraft that would appeal to the average American citizen. The Junior also represented a significant diversion for the Curtiss-Wright Corporation, which was almost exclusively oriented to the production of military and heavy commercial aircraft during that time in its history

This particular airplane has a rich historical background through many years on the air show circuit performing the "Flying Farmer" routine, a stunt in which a "bystander" attempts to fly the aircraft with comical but safe results (i.e. easy-to-fly aircraft). For this routine, the aircraft was modified by removing the fuselage fabric, painting the wings in bright polka dots, and adding a 45 hp Lycoming engine.

The full list of owners of the aircraft is still under research. L.M. Angevine and R.C. Christopher of Grenada, Mississippi, owned the aircraft in December 1948 and made repairs to the left wing. Robert E. Maytag of the Maytag Company, Newton, Iowa, was the last owner and flew it as a private sport plane. He donated it to the Museum on June 22, 1959.

The Curtiss-Wright CW-1 Junior was a moderately priced sport aircraft produced before the Depression for the general public. Its affordability, short field capability, sturdy construction, low handling speed, and good visibility made it an easy and safe plane to fly. The Junior soon became the most popular flivver-type airplane of the early 1930s and represents a significant milestone in the "everyman" aircraft movement of the period.

Karl H. White, Walter Beech, and H. Lloyd Child designed and produced the Skeeter, later renamed the Junior, which was powered by a 3-cylinder 45 hp Szekely SR-3-O engine. The Museum's aircraft has a rich background of many years on the air show circuit performing the "Flying Farmer" routine in which a "bystander" attempts to fly the plane with comical but safe results. It was donated to the Museum in 1959.

Gift of Robert E. Maytag

Physical Description:
2-place parasol-wing silver and blue monoplane with 45hp Szekely SR-3 Cylinder Model O pusher engine.

Country of Origin
United States of America

Manufacturer
Curtiss Aeroplane Company

Date
1930-1932

Location
Steven F. Udvar-Hazy Center, Chantilly, VA
Hangar
Mary Baker Engen Restoration Hangar

Type
CRAFT-Aircraft

Materials
Fuselage - steel tube with fabric cover
Wings - wood with fabric cover
Dimensions
Wing span: 9 m (29 ft. 6 in.)
Length: 6.5 m (21ft. 3 in.)
Height: 2.2 m (7 ft. 4 in.)
Weight: 251.7 kgs (555 lbs.)

The CW-1 was a moderate-priced, sport aircraft produced before the Depression for mass-market appeal. Smaller and simpler than cabin aircraft such as the Curtiss Robin, Curtiss-Wright designed the Junior especially for the low-budget sportsman pilot and the fixed-base operator who wished to offer flying time at a rate within reach of the average flying populace. Easy to buy, easy to fly, and cheap to operate, the Junior soon became just about the most popular flivver-type airplane of the next few years.

The CW-1 grew out of a late 1920s wood structure, parasol monoplane design called the Buzzard, designed by Orval H. "Bud" Snyder, which was powered by a 2-cylinder ABC Scorpion engine. In 1930, Ralph S. Damon and Walter Beech, executives of the Curtiss-Robertson division of the Curtiss-Wright Corporation (Curtiss-Robertson eventually became the Curtiss-Wright Airplane Company), decided to market a light airplane to compete with the Aeronca C-2 and the American Eaglet which were about to come on the market. They obtained the design rights to the Buzzard, but the aircraft had such poor performance that it had to be redesigned.

The three persons credited with the design of the Junior, Karl H. White, Walter Beech, and H. Lloyd Child, labored to first produce the Skeeter, powered by a 3-cylinder 45 hp Szekely SR-3-O engine. The Skeeter's only resemblance to the Buzzard was that it was a pusher-type monoplane. It was first test-flown in October 1930, but engineering problems had to be solved before it would be ready for production. Later in the year the Skeeter was renamed the Junior and by December the aircraft was again test-flown and pronounced ready for production. The production Juniors were two-place, open cockpit parasol wing monoplanes, powered by the Szekely SR-3-O engine. By June 1931, 125 Juniors, each priced at $1,494, had been sold. It is estimated that at least 270 were built through 1931 and that 261 of those were issued registration numbers.

Company promotional material attributed the aircraft's success to price ("built to sell for the price of an automobile in the medium price class") and quality. The Junior had many admirable qualities: easy and safe in flight, short field capability, low handling speed, sturdy construction, low wing loading, and good visibility for the pilot that gave "amateur pilots factors which have hitherto been lacking in available airplanes." While much of this was true, the Junior had its problems. The Szekely engine was temperamental and had a habit of occasionally throwing a cylinder. This was solved by tying a steel cable around the cylinder heads, which although it could not keep the cylinder from being thrown, kept a thrown cylinder from being blown back into the propeller. Moreover, some accidents occurred on the ground when passengers in the rear cockpit walked into the propeller after deplaning. The Junior was modified as an amphibian and called the Duck, but an accident in which a pilot was killed after he put the aircraft into a shallow, inverted dive seriously damaged the aircraft's reputation.

That accident and decreasing sales put an end to the production of the Junior. Orders had fallen off drastically between the middle of 1931 and the end of the year, and by early 1932, sales came to a dead halt. Meanwhile, Karl White left for the Naval Aircraft Factory and Walter Beech went to Wichita, Kansas, to form his own company. Curtiss-Wright officials in Buffalo, New York, ordered that the design and production of the Junior be terminated and that the plant in St. Louis be turned over to the production of the T32 Condor.

Despite its brief history, the Curtiss-Wright Junior is a significant aircraft in the NASM collection because it represents a milestone in the so-called "everyman" aircraft movement in the United States. This movement, which began before the Depression and lasted over a period of two decades, sought to produce a mass-market, affordable, personal aircraft that would appeal to the average American citizen. The Junior also represented a significant diversion for the Curtiss-Wright Corporation, which was almost exclusively oriented to the production of military and heavy commercial aircraft during that time in its history

This particular airplane has a rich historical background through many years on the air show circuit performing the "Flying Farmer" routine, a stunt in which a "bystander" attempts to fly the aircraft with comical but safe results (i.e. easy-to-fly aircraft). For this routine, the aircraft was modified by removing the fuselage fabric, painting the wings in bright polka dots, and adding a 45 hp Lycoming engine.

The full list of owners of the aircraft is still under research. L.M. Angevine and R.C. Christopher of Grenada, Mississippi, owned the aircraft in December 1948 and made repairs to the left wing. Robert E. Maytag of the Maytag Company, Newton, Iowa, was the last owner and flew it as a private sport plane. He donated it to the Museum on June 22, 1959.

ID: A19590100000