The H-1 liquid-fuel rocket engine was the first stage power plant for the Saturn 1 and Saturn 1B launch vehicles, the precursors to the Saturn V, the rocket that propelled astronauts to the Moon in the Apollo program. The Saturn 1 and Saturn 1B were each fitted with eight H-1 engines in their first stages. The engine uses RP-1 (kerosene) and liquid oxygen.
The H-1 was evolved directly from Army Ballistic Missile Agency projects, specifically the Jupiter and Juno V - later re-designated the Saturn. The successful launches of the Saturn 1 and Saturn 1B led the way to the Saturn V. The Saturn 1, with its eight H-1's, first flew on October 27, 1961, while the last Saturn 1B was flown on July 15, 1975, for the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project.
NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center transferred this H-1 engine to the Smithsonian Institution in 1970.
Transferred from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration