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A Permanent Presence in Space

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SOYUZ: AFTER THE MOON RACE


The Soyuz ("Union") has been in use longer than any other manned spacecraft. Designed during the race to the Moon in the 1960s, it first carried a cosmonaut into space in April 1967. Since then the Soyuz and its subsequent generations--the Soyuz T and Soyuz TM--have flown scores of manned missions in Earth orbit. Soyuz has been the workhorse of the Soviet and Russian space programs.

More than 100 cosmonauts have flown in the Soyuz on a variety of Earth-orbiting missions since 1967. Modifications have made the spacecraft more efficient and reliable, but the basic structure remains the same.


SOYUZ DESIGN AND MISSION

The Soyuz spacecraft has three main components. The large spherical section at the front is the orbital module. The landing module is the bell-shaped section in the middle. The cylindrical section at the rear is the instrument module.

Soyuz in orbit
88 k jpeg
NASA#: 75-HC-491

ORBITAL MODULE

LANDING MODULE

INSTRUMENT MODULE

SOLAR PANELS

DOCKING DEVICES

Used for storage during launch and as a workshop-living area for the cosmonauts during flight. Crew cabin used during launch and re-entry, the only part of Soyuz that returns to Earth. Contains the main spacecraft systems, including propulsion, heating, cooling, and communications. Provide electric power for Soyuz. To prepare for linking spacecraft into larger structures and transferring crews from shuttle-craft to space stations, the Soviets worked on rendezvous and docking in multiple-craft Soyuz missions, testing both automatic and manual control. Since 1967 there have been five major docking system designs. Engineers modified the Soyuz docking devices over the years to improve efficiency and to match the specific mission of each spacecraft.
 Length: 2.5 m (8 ft 2 in)

 Diameter: 2.2 m (7 ft 2 in)

 Weight: 1,200 kg (2,700 lb)

Length: 2.2 m (7 ft 2 in)

 Diameter: 2.2 m (7 ft 2 in)

 Weight: 2,800 kg (6,200 lb)

Length: 2.3 m (7 ft 6 in)

 Diameter: 2.2 m (7 ft 2 in)

 Weight: 2,650 kg (5,850 lb)

  Manufacturer: Energia Design Bureau

Launch vehicle: Soyuz



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