The objectives of the Apollo 14 mission were lunar surface science, lunar orbital science, and operational/engineering. Lunar surface scientific activities were centered around deployment of the Apollo Lunar Scientific Experiment Package (ALSEP), lunar field geology investigations, collection of samples of surface materials for return to Earth, and deployment of other scientific instruments not part of the ALSEP.
The orbital science experiments included high-resolution photography of future landing sites, photography of deep-space phenomena such as Zodiacal light and Gegenschein; communications tests using S-band and VHF signals to determine reflective properties of the lunar surface; tests to determine variations in lunar gravity at orbital altitude by observing Doppler variations in S-band signals; and photography of surface details from 60 nautical miles altitude. The command module pilot conducted the bulk of the orbital tasks while the commander and lunar module pilot were on the lunar surface.
Engineering/operational evaluation of hardware and techniques continued throughout the mission.
From Apollo 14 Press Kit.