National Air and Space Museum, Archives Division

Samuel P. Langley Collection

Accession No. XXXX-0494

Samuel P. Langley
SI neg no. 87-17019

National Air and Space Museum
Smithsonian Institution
Washington, DC

Allan Janus

© Smithsonian Institution, 2008



Historical note

Samuel Pierpont Langley (1834-1906) was an astronomer, a pioneer of aeronautical research, and Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution (1887-1906). As a youth, Langley studied civil engineering and pursued this as a career until 1864, when his interest in astronomy led him to positions at the Harvard Observatory, the Naval Academy, the Western University of Pennsylvania and the Allegheny Observatory. In 1887, he became Secretary of the Smithsonian, and spent the following years in construction and tests of aircraft. On May 6, 1896, his Aerodrome No. 5, powered with a 1hp steam engine, flew nearly 3/4 of a mile. This flight surpassed by more than ten times the best efforts of any predecessor. In 1898, at the request of the Army's Board of Ordnance and Fortifications, Langley started work on another design - the Great Aerodrome, also known as Aerodrome A; however, two attempts at launching the aircraft in 1903 failed. In addition to his scientific experiments, Langley's writings include "Experiments in Aerodynamics," "The Internal Work of the Wind," and the "Langley Memoir on Mechanical Flight," published posthumously. Samuel P. Langley died in Aiken, South Carolina, on February 27, 1906.




Scope and content note

This collection includes information about Langley and his colleagues, as well as material associated with Langley's work. The collection includes the Aerodrome project waste books, biographies of Langley and his assistant Charles Manly, newspaper clippings, correspondence (Langley's, J.E. Watkins', and miscellaneous), manuscripts regarding Langley's aircraft, photographs and drawings, work requisitions for staff labor on the project, a sketchbook, specifications and measurements for Langley's experiments, and manuscript material from the "Langley Memoir on Mechanical Flight".

The National Air and Space Museum's Samuel P. Langley Collection was drawn from several sources in the Smithsonian Institution. Parts of the collection were separated at undetermined dates from the institutional records of Langley's time as Secretary (now held by the Smithsonian Institution Archives [SIA], as the Samuel P. Langley Papers, 1867-1906, Record Unit 7003) for several purposes:

  • Design papers and notes from Langley's aerodrome project were used for restoring the Langley aerodromes for exhibits beginning in 1917.
  • Correspondence from the papers was consulted when controversies arose between the Wright brothers and the Smithsonian, and over credit for the design of the motor built by Stephen M. Balzer and extensively modified by Charles Manly, which was used on Aerodrome A.
  • Technical drawings of the aerodromes were drawn from SIA in the 1970s for conservation purposes.

Other material was added to the collection over the years:

  • Correspondence, memoranda, notes and label scripts from Langley exhibits from 1913 through the 1960s.
  • Design notes and work records from Langley's workshop were stored with the aerodromes in the Museum's collections, and were later transferred to the Archives Division.
  • Biographical material on Langley, and correspondence to the Museum on Langley and the aerodromes.
  • Material from the foundation of the Langley Aerodynamic Laboratory in 1913.

In addition to Record Unit 7003, researchers may wish to consult these Smithsonian Institution Archives' collections:

  • Record Unit 31, Office of the Secretary, Correspondence, 1866-1906, with related records to 1927.
  • Record Unit 34, Office of the Secretary, Correspondence, 1887-1907
  • Record Unit 7268, J. Elfreth Watkins Collection, 1869, 1881-1903, 1953, 1966 and undated.

The Archives Division of the National Air and Space Museum holds the Charles M. Manly Papers, (Acc. 1999-0004). Manly was Samuel Langley's assistant in the Aerodrome project from 1898 to 1903.




Series and subseries organization

The Samuel P. Langley Collection is arranged in the following series:

Series I - Waste Books

Langley and his staff used waste books - bound ledgers - to keep records of their work on the aeronautical projects, which Langley inspected frequently.

Series II - Scrapbooks

A collection of 18 scrapbooks containing newspaper and magazine clippings on "aerial navigation". Projects by Langley, Maxim, Lilienthal and many obscure experimenters are included. Other clippings are included in Series VIII and XI.

Series III - Aeronautical Research and the Aerodromes

This series consists of notes, data, drawings and memoranda from Langley's aeronautical research at both the Smithsonian and the Allegheny Observatory. Subseries 2 contains material used in various Smithsonian exhibitions of the Langley Aerodromes. Some additional material is included in Series XI.

  • Subseries 1 - Design and Construction
  • Subseries 2 - Langley Aerodrome Exhibits

Series IV - Correspondence

Letters and memoranda written by and sent to S. P. Langley and his assistants, C. M. Manly and J. E. Watkins. Additional correspondence is included in Series XI.

  • Subseries 1 - S. P. Langley Correspondence
  • Subseries 2 - S. P. Langley's Assistants' Correspondence
  • Subseries 3 - Miscellaneous Correspondence

Series V - Manuscripts, Papers, Articles

Manuscripts, published articles and papers by Langley and others. See also Series XI.

  • Subseries 1 - Works by S. P. Langley
  • Subseries 2 - Miscellaneous Manuscripts, Articles, and Notes

Series VI - Photographs

Photographs, mainly of Langley's aerodromes. Additional photographs are included with Series XI.

Series VII - Trade Catalogues and Ephemera

Trade catalogues and price lists from various suppliers and dealers found stored with the Aerodrome A at the Museum's Paul E. Garber Facility in Suitland, Maryland.

Series VIII - Miscellaneous Files

Series IX - Flat Boxes and Oversized Material

Ledgers, drawings, test data, publications

Series X - Shorthand Diaries

A collection of 37 notebooks containing notes in an unidentified shorthand system, dating from 1898 to 1902, with 8 notebooks bearing partial dates or undated.

Series XI - Additional Material

After the publication of the Langley Collection finding aid, two additional boxes of correspondence, manuscript material, drawings and photographs were found in the Museum's rare book room, the Ramsey Room. This material has been included as a separate series.




A Timeline of Samuel P. Langley's Life and Career

A Timeline of Samuel P. Langley's Life and Career

Aeronautical milestones by other experimenters are featured in boldface.
August 22, 1834 Samuel Pierpont Langley born to Samuel Langley and Mary Sumner Williams Langley in Roxbury Massachusetts.
1843 William Henson and John Stringfellow publish their design for the Aeriel, a steam-powered "Aerial Steam Carriage".
1845 Langley begins to attend the Boston Latin School.
1847 Henson tests a model of his aircraft.
1848 Stringfellow and Henson build and test a steam powered model aircraft. It has a wingspan of 10 ft (3.5 m), and it flies 40 meters (131 feet) before crashing into a wall.
1849 Sir George Cayley tests a towed triplane glider. In one test, it flies several yards with a local boy as a passenger.
1851 Langley graduates from the Boston High School; begins work as an apprentice with a Boston architect.
c.1852 - 1864 Langley works for architectural and engineering firms in St. Louis and Chicago.
1853 Cayley's coachman flies a glider across Brompton Dale, Yorkshire. The coachman resigns his position after the flight.

Cayley conceives the rubber band-powered model airplane.

Michel Loup designs a powered twin propeller monoplane with a wheeled undercarriage.
1853 - 1854 L C. Letur tests his parachute-glider design. Letur is killed in a test flight in 1854.
1855 Joseph Pline coins the word "aeroplane" to describe a propeller-driven dirigible.
1857 Jean-Marie Le Bris, a sea captain inspired by the flight of the albatross, builds a glider he names the Albatros Artificiel and makes two short hops, breaking his leg in the second.

Félix du Temple, a French naval officer, flies a clockwork model aircraft - the first sustained powered flights by a heavier-than-air machine.
1862 Gabriel de la Landelle coins the word aviation, and later, aviateur - aviator.
1864 Langley returns to Roxbury. He begins work, with his younger brother John, on a five foot focal length telescope, which they complete over three years.
1864 - 1865 Samuel and John Langley tour Europe.
c.1865 Langley is hired as observatory assistant at the Harvard University Observatory, Cambridge, MA.
January, 1866 The Aeronautical Society of Great Britain (later named the Royal Aeronautical Society) is founded.
c.1866 Langley is hired as assistant professor of mathematics at the U.S. Naval Academy, Annapolis, Maryland. Duties include restoring the Academy's astronomical observatory to operation.
1867 Langley is named professor of Astronomy and Physics at the Western University of Pennsylvania, Pittsburgh. Duties include directorship of the Allegheny Observatory. His tenure at Allegheny will begin his work at the popularization of science through lectures and writing newspaper and journal articles.
1868 Stringfellow builds a model triplane.
1869 Langley proposes a system of standard time distribution via the telegraph to railroads and cities. The Pennsylvania Railroad signs on for the service.

Langley joins a U.S. Coast Survey expedition to Oakland, Kentucky, to observe the August 7th solar eclipse. He observes later eclipses in 1870, 1878, and 1900.
1870 The Allegheny Observatory begins twice-daily time signals to the Pennsylvania Railroad's offices. Other railroads, businesses, and government offices later subscribe to the service. The income from the system aids the operation of the Allegheny Observatory and Langley's research work.

Langley travels to Jerez de la Frontera, Spain, to observe a solar eclipse.
1870 Alphonse Pénaud designs his rubber-powered Hélicoptère.
August 18, 1871 Pénaud demonstrates his Planophore, a rubber-powered model, at the Tuileries, Paris. It flies 40 meters (approximately 131 feet) in 11 seconds.
1871 Francis Wenham designs the first wind tunnel; it is built by John Browning.
1873 Langley makes a detailed drawing of a sun spot. Famous for its accuracy of detail, the drawing is widely reproduced for many years.
1876 Pénaud and Paul Gauchot patent a design for an inherently stable steam-powered full-sized airplane.
1878 Bishop Milton Wright presents a toy based on the Pénaud Hélicoptère to two of his sons - eleven year old Wilbur and seven year old Orville.
1879 - 1880 Langley designs and builds his bolometer for the measurement of the energy of incident electromagnetic radiation.
1879 Victor Tatin designs and flies a compressed air-powered seven foot long model.
1881 Langley organizes an expedition to Mount Whitney in California's Sierra Nevada Range for solar observations and other scientific studies.
1883 Alexandre Goupil builds a bird-shaped unpowered airplane that briefly lifts off in a tethered test while carrying two men.
1884 The U. S. Signal Service publishes Langley's report on the Mount Whitney expedition.
1886 Langley's interest in aeronautics is kindled by a paper on bird flight by a Mr. Lancaster at a meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science in Buffalo, New York. Lancaster also describes making small flying models which he describes as "floating planes" and "effigies".
1887 Langley designs and builds his large whirling table at the Allegheny Observatory for the study of aerodynamics; begins aeronautical experimental work. He coins the term Aerodromics for the art of building flying machines from the Greek aerodromoi, which he incorrectly translates as "air running".
January 12, 1887 Langley is appointed Assistant Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution.
April, 1887 Langley begins to build small Pénaud type rubber-powered flying models.
November 18, 1887 Langley is named Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution on the death of Secretary Spencer F. Baird. He retains the directorship of the Allegheny Observatory, dividing his time between Washington and Allegheny until 1891 when James E. Keeler becomes director of the observatory.
1887 Hiram Maxim, an American resident in Great Britain, inventor of the Maxim machine gun, begins work on a large powered biplane test rig.
1888 Langley publishes The New Astronomy.
1889 The National Zoological Park is founded, due to Langley's interest. A site in Washington's Rock Creek Park is selected by Langley and Frederick Law Olmstead. The Zoo becomes part of the Smithsonian in 1890, and is opened 1n 1891.
1890 Langley creates the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory; its first home is in a wooden building behind the Smithsonian Castle. In 1955, SAO moves to Cambridge, Massachusetts.
1890 Clément Ader completes his Éole, a full-sized airplane. It has a fifty foot wing span, and is equipped with a lightweight 20-horsepower steam engine of Ader's design and a four-bladed propeller. At Armainvilliers on October 9, the Éole lifts off the ground to an altitude of approximately one foot and skims the ground for about 50 meters (165 feet). Ader later claims a second flight of 100 meters in September, 1891; there is no evidence for the second flight.
March 28, 1891 First successful flight of one of Langley's rubber-powered models.
1891 Work begins on Langley's Aerodrome No. 0, powered by two small steam engines. Construction is halted before the aircraft is completed.

Langley's Experiments in Aerodynamics is published by the Smithsonian.
1891 Otto Lilienthal, a German mechanical engineer, begins a program of flight research using piloted hang gliders of his own design. He and his brother Gustav will go on to design and build 18 gliders over the next five years, making approximately 2,000 flights.
1892 Aerodrome No. 1 designed and built. Not flown.
1892 - 1893 Aerodrome No. 2 and Aerodrome No. 3 are designed and built. No. 3 is powered by compressed air. Neither is flown.
1893 A 38 foot scow is converted into a houseboat with a workshop and launch platform for Aerodrome testing. In May, it is towed down the Potomac to a point near Quantico, Virginia, off Chopawamsic Island. In November Aerodrome No. 4 is taken to the houseboat for testing.
November 20, 1893 Test flight of Aerodrome No. 4 - falls in the water.
December 7, 1893 Second flight of Aerodrome No. 4 - falls in the water.
July 31, 1894 Maxim's large test rig rises briefly from its support rails during a test run.
August 1-4, 1894 Octave Chanute and Albert Zahm sponsor the Conference on Aerial Navigation in Chicago, bringing together an international assembly of aeronautical researchers.
October, 1894 Test flight of modified Aerodrome No. 4, using improved catapult. Aircraft falls in the water. Aerodrome No. 5, with a one horsepower gasoline burning steam engine, is also tested. It flies 35 feet for three seconds before stalling and falling into the river.
1894 Chanute publishes his book Progress in Flying Machines.
November 12, 1894 Lawrence Hargrave, an Australian researcher, links together four of his box kites, adds a simple seat, and flies to an altitude of 16 feet in the device.
1895 James Means publishes the first of his three Aeronautical Annuals.
May 6, 1896 Aerodrome No. 6 is launched from the houseboat's catapult; the left wing collapses and the aircraft lands in the water. Aerodrome No. 5 is launched at 3:05 PM and flies about half a mile in a minute and a half at an altitude reaching 100 feet - the first sustained flight of a heavier than air apparatus. In a second flight at 5:10, Aerodrome No. 5 makes three circles, climbs to about 60 feet, and is airborne for one minute and thirty-one seconds. The flight is witnessed and photographed by Alexander Graham Bell (box 45, folder 9).
June 1896 Chanute and Augustus Herring establish a camp at the Lake Michigan dunes near Miller, Indiana to conduct flight tests on a number of gliders - several of Chanute's designs, including his multiwing Katydid, Herring's copy of a Lilienthal design, and a Chanute-Herring triplane collaboration.
August 9, 1896 Lilienthal's glider stalls and crashes from an altitude of about 50 feet. Lilienthal dies of his injuries the next morning. His last words are "sacrifices must be made."
November 28, 1896 Aerodrome No. 6 is flown from the houseboat - it flies 4800 feet in one minute and forty-five seconds.
July 1897 Ader completes his Avion III, also known as the Aquilon. It features two 20-horsepower steam engines and twin tractor propellers, and a wingspan of nearly 56 feet. The aircraft weighs approximately 880 pounds. Ader attempts a flight on October 14; Avion III is unable to rise off the ground.
March 25, 1898 Assistant Secretary of the Navy Theodore Roosevelt suggests the military use of the Langley Aerodrome to Navy Secretary John D. Long (box 40, folder 10).
April 6, 1898 Langley proposes a scaled-up version of the Aerodrome for military use to a joint Army-Navy board meeting at the Smithsonian. He requests $50,000 to build a large, piloted version of his earlier designs. The proposed aircraft is called the Great Aerodrome, or Aerodrome A.
June 1898 Charles M. Manly, a Cornell University engineering student, is hired as Langley's "assistant in charge of experiments."
October 1898 Major work begins on the Great Aerodrome.
December 12, 1898 A contract is signed between Langley and Stephen M. Balzer of New York. Balzer is to design and build a 12 horsepower motor to power the Aerodrome. On the same date, Langley writes to the U.S. Army Board of Ordnance and Fortifications, agreeing to design and build a flying machine. He estimates a cost of $50,000 to build his machine.
May, 1899 A new, larger houseboat equipped with a turntable and catapult is delivered in Washington.
May 30, 1899 Wilbur Wright sends a letter to Langley at the Smithsonian, requesting material pertaining to aeronautical research. He says in his letter that he wishes "... to begin a systematic study of the subject in preparation for practical work." Assistant Secretary of the Smithsonian Richard Rathbun directs his staff to assemble a package of papers, including Langley's Story of Experiments in Mechanical Flight and Experiments in Aerodynamics. The Wright brothers receive the package three weeks later. They later credit the material they received from the Smithsonian with giving them a "good understanding of the nature of the problem of flying."
June 7 - August 3, 1899 Additional flights of Aerodromes No. 5 and No. 6 are made from the houseboat at Chopawamsic Island.
July 1899 Langley visits Ader's workshop in Paris.
July, 1899 The Wright Brothers build a five foot biplane kite.
October 2, 1899 Percy Pilcher dies of his injury after his Lilienthal-type glider breaks up in flight.
May, 1900 Langley and the staff of the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory observe the May 28 solar eclipse in Wadesboro, North Carolina.
August, 1900 The Wrights begin to build their first glider, a biplane design with a 17 foot wingspan.
September, 1900 The Wrights arrive at Kitty Hawk, North Carolina, to test their glider on the dunes. They begin test flights in early October.
1901 Langley creates the Children's Room, with exhibits designed to inspire interest in science, technology and natural history, in the Smithsonian Castle.
July, 1901 The Wrights return to Kitty Hawk with a new biplane glider.
Autumn, 1901 The Wright brothers return to Dayton and begin a program to develop their own fundamental aeronautical data, building a wind tunnel and a test rig mounted on a bicycle.
September 19, 1902 The Wrights complete assembly of their new glider and begin flights the same afternoon. And continue through the autumn. After an early crash, continual modifications improve the design. Wilbur writes to his father, "We now believe the flying problem is really nearing its solution." On their return to Dayton, the brothers file a patent on their design.
July 14, 1903 The houseboat is towed down the Potomac to a spot opposite Widewater, Virginia, about 40 miles from Washington.
August 8, 1903 The Quarter-Size Aerodrome makes a successful flight from the houseboat.
September 3, 1903 Work is begun on erecting the Great Aerodrome on the houseboat catapult.
October 7, 1903 The Great Aerodrome, piloted by Manly, is launched by the houseboat catapult at 12:20 PM. The aircraft is snagged by the catapult launch car, and drops into the river. Langley was in Washington, and does not witness the attempt. The wreckage of the Aerodrome is salvaged.
December 8, 1903 The refurbished Great Aerodrome is readied for flight on the houseboat, now moored below Washington at Arsenal Point at the confluence of the Potomac and Anacostia rivers. At 4:45 PM, the aircraft, with Manly at the controls, is launched. The tail assembly drags along the launch track, and the Aerodrome's tail begins to collapse. The Aerodrome falls into the river. Manly is briefly trapped by the wreckage, but cuts himself free and is rescued. In the aftermath of the crash, Langley is ridiculed in the press. Though the Army withdraws its support, Langley receives offers of financial support from businessmen to continue his aeronautical work. He politely refuses these offers and ends his aeronautical work.
December 17, 1903 The Wright brothers make four flights at Kitty Hawk, North Carolina. The first flight covered a distance of 120 feet and lasted 12 seconds; in the fourth flight, the Flyer traveled 852 feet in 59 seconds.
June, 1905 The Smithsonian's accountant, W. W. Karr, is accused of embezzling Institutional funds. He is later convicted and imprisoned. Langley holds himself responsible for the loss, and thereafter refuses to accept his salary.
November, 1905 Langley suffers a stroke.
February, 1906 Langley moves to Aiken, South Carolina to convalesce.
February 27, 1906 After suffering another stroke, Langley dies.
March 3, 1906 Samuel Pierpont Langley is buried in Forest Hill Cemetery, Boston.
May - October, 1914 The Great Aerodrome is refurbished and is tested on Lake Keuka, Hammondsport, New York; the tests are conducted by Glenn Curtiss. Using the Manly-Balzer motor and mounted on pontoons instead of using a catapult launch, the Aerodrome makes several short flights, the longest lasting about five seconds. Later a Curtiss 80-hp engine is substituted for the Manly-Balzer motor and a flight of about 3,000 feet is made on September 17.

The Smithsonian Institution later displays the Aerodrome with an exhibit label that reads "The first man-carrying aeroplane in the history of the world capable of sustained free flight." This claim causes a rift between the Institution and Orville Wright (Wilbur had died in 1912) that is not fully mended until 1942. The Wright 1903 Flyer is presented to the Smithsonian Institution on December 17, 1948. Today, the Flyer is on exhibit in the Milestones of Flight Gallery of the National Air and Space Museum's Mall building; Samuel Langley's Great Aerodrome is displayed at the Museum's Steven F. Udvar-Hazy Center in Chantilly, Virginia.



The Smithsonian Aeronautical Staff

Langley's staff engaged in his aeronautical work as listed in waste books, drawings and correspondence:

F. C. Bache
Laborer with the U.S. Fish Commission, then located at the Smithsonian.
Carl Barus
Formerly of the U.S. Geological Survey and the Weather Bureau. Hired in 1893 as a physicist; acted as the liaison between Langley and the Aerodrome project staff. Part of the crew on the houseboat.
Louville Eugene Emerson
Laborer.
George L. Fowler
An engineer, Fowler was hired by Langley to help design an engine for the aerodromes.
William Gaertner
Instrument maker.
- Heed, Jr.
Name found in a shorthand diary dated 1899 - presumably, a Smithsonian secretary or assistant.
Augustus Moore Herring
An independent aeronautical experimenter and skilled designer and pilot of gliders; hired by Octave Chanute in 1894 and by Langley as chief assistant in 1895. Herring resigned (or was dismissed) in November 1895 and resumed work with Chanute. In 1908, he competed with the Wrights for the Army Flyer contract, but does not complete a finished aircraft.
Edward Chalmers Huffaker
An engineer and aeronautical experimenter; built gliders based on the observation of bird flight; had delivered a paper at the International Conference on Aerial Navigation in Chicago, 1893. Recommended by Chanute, Huffaker was hired by Langley in December, 1894. He resigned from the Smithsonian in 1898 and went to work for Chanute.
L. C. Maltby
Machinist, 1891-1899; assisted in motor design and oversaw the Aerodromes' metalwork. Part of the crew on the houseboat.
Charles Matthews Manly
Graduate of Cornell University (1896). Hired by Langley and placed in charge of construction of the Great Aerodrome in 1898. Piloted the Great Aerodrome on its two launch attempts, 1903. Manly resigned from the Smithsonian in 1905. He served as a consulting aviation engineer for different government agencies and corporations, including the British War Office, 1915; the Curtiss Aeroplane and Motor Corporation 1915-1919 (from 1919-1920 as the assistant general manger); and as a member of the US Commission to the International Aircraft Conference, London, 1918. Manly also completed and edited Langley's Memoir on Mechanical Flight, which was published by the Smithsonian in 1911.
Charles B. Nichols
Smithsonian cabinet maker (1890-1893), in charge of construction of the small rubber powered models.
R. Luther Reed
Smithsonian carpenter foreman (1880-1904). In charge of construction of Aerodromes No. 5 and 6 following between Herring's departure and Manly's arrival. Worked on design of the Great Aerodrome and the second houseboat. Part of the crew on the houseboat.
B. L. Rhinehart
Smithsonian mechanic. Built a small steam motor for Aerodrome No. 0 in 1891. Performed design work on an experimental gasoline motor, c. 1896.
William L. Speiden
Draftsman or designer (1893-1899).

John Elfrith Watkins
Assistant engineer of construction with the Pennsylvania Railroad. Joined the Smithsonian as an honorary curator in the Steam Transportation section in 1885. Named curator of Transportation in 1887. He rejoined the Pennsylvania Railroad in 1892, and later worked at the Field Columbian Museum as director of Industrial Arts. Watkins returned to the Smithsonian in 1895 as the National Museum's curator of Technological Collections. In 1898, he was named curator of the Division of Technology. Watkins also served the Smithsonian as Engineer of Property, 1888-1889, and Chief of Buildings and Superintendence, 1896-1903. Watkins conducted much of the Aerodrome project's correspondence, and was the project's expert in steam engine design.
George B. Wells
Smithsonian messenger 1(894-1903). Most of the collection's shorthand notebooks (Series X) bear his name; possibly, he acted as Langley's stenographer.
William Crawford Winlock
Curator, Bureau of International Exchange (1889-1899).



Series I: Waste books

Samuel Langley distributed waste books - bound office ledgers - to members of the staff working on his aeronautical projects. The staff members were expected to keep track of their work in these books, which Langley inspected frequently. Calculations, weight data, and drawings are to be found in the waste books, along with bound in and inserted memoranda, notes, and letters. The waste book numbers and descriptions are given as found written in each book. Langley's private waste books and several books of his correspondence are included.


Box   

1 Waste Book No. 1, April 25 - November 27, 1887.
Pages 1-42, 83-90, 101-126, 135-136.
Table of contents, page 1.
[Also includes pages 360-365 - March 9, 1888.]

Waste Book No. 2, August 24 - December 21, 1888.
Pages 1-4, 9-158, 331-336, 401-410.
Table of contents, page 3.

Waste Book No. 1, October 25 - November 6, 1889.
Pages 93-94, 151-162.
No table of contents.

Waste Book No. 2, January 10 - October 30, 1889.
Pages 159-320, 411-414.
No table of contents.

(Waste Book No. 3 not present)

Waste Book No. 4, June 6 - December 31, 1889.
Pages 195-214
No table of contents.
Index section is blank.

2 Waste Book No. 1, October 14 - November 6, 1890.
Pages 51-52, 95-100, 141-142, 163-164, 175-186, 339-352, 367-384.
No table of contents

Waste Book No. 2, September 1890.
Pages 7-8, 395-398.
No table of contents.

Waste Book No. 3, September 16 - December 31, 1890.
Pages 1-66, 69-300, 305-444.
Table of contents, page 1.
Index starts after page 444 (unpaginated).

Waste Book No. 4, October 1 - December 31, 1890.
Pages 1-75, 79-194, 215-222, 227-234, 333-334, 337-358, 365-366.
Table of contents, page 333.

Waste Book No. 5, November 25 - December 31, 1890.
Pages 39-114, 123-170.
Table of contents, page 39; titled Pneumatics Book No. 5, Commenced Dec. 15, 1890.
Index begins after page 376 (unpaginated).

3 From Waste Book No. 4, 1891.
Pages 75-78, 223-226, 235-378.
Index begins after page 378; 1st page is a table of contents titled Index of Vols 1-6.

Waste Book No. 5, 1891.
Pages 115-122, 171-324, 405-420.

Waste Book No. 6, 1891.
Pages 1-340.

4 Waste Book No. 7, January 1 - December 31, 1892.
Pages 1-210.
Includes bound-in notes of meeting with A.M. Herring, New York City, May 4, 1895; letter from Langley to W.C. Winlock, November 4, 1895; Langley memorandum, January 7, 1896; letter from E.C. Huffaker to W.C. Winlock, undated; letter from J.E. Watkins to Langley, May 26, 1992 - the second page is bound-in at the beginning of Waste Book No. 8.

Waste Book No. 8, January 1 - December 1892.
Pages 1-322.
Inscribed after title page:
Bache
Aerodynamics No. 8
For the Use of W. Watkins
Commences Jan 1, 1892.

Blank index section at end of Volume 4

5 Waste Book No. 7, February - November 1893.
Pages 211-276, 329-356. Pages 329-356 also include pages of notes by L.C. Maltby and C.B. Nichols, October 1892 - January 1893.

Waste Book No. 9, January - August 1893.
Pages 1-115, 312-326, 400-413.
Written after title page:
"Bache
Aerodynamics No. 9
In the Use of S. P. Langley
Commences January 1, 1893
Devoted to Experiments with the whirling tables at the so [?] and to their reduction. - Also to propellers generally.

General rules for users of this waste book.
A. This is a book of original entry. Everything to do with the investigation in hand is to be noted in it, e.g. all serafs [series?] of computations etc. instead of being made on a separate piece of paper, are to be made here preferably on the left hand page, the right being kept for the more important entries. No change should be made in an entry once made.
B. The date is always to be written in the upper left hand corner of the numbered page.
C. As a rule before the days work should be written under the title "Object", a few words stating what the point [illeg.] measurement immediately in hand [?]. And at the end of the day under the head of "Conclusion" a few words stating what has been shown, or failed to be shown. (This is only for the guidance of any other person who may have occasion to use the book)"

Waste Book No. 10, January 1 - October 25, 1893.
Pages 1-62, 99-412.
Written after title page:
"This book is the property of S. P. Langley
It is left in the temporary use of L.C. Maltby
To be used exclusively for the aerodromics workshop.
To hold orders & drawings, and to make memoranda in.
Orders and drawings begin on page 21.
Memoranda begin on page 201."

Notes by Carl Barus are included on pages 363-375 and on pages 100-200. Index follows p.412.

Waste Book No. 11, February 6 - December 31, 1893.
Pages 1-267.

Waste Book No.12, February 7 - March 13, 1893.
Pages 1-31, 98-103.
Assigned to M.R.S. Reed [R. L. Reed?].

Waste Book of Gaertner [no number], April 7 - December 31, 1893.
Pages 1-33.

Index to Waste Book 11 follows Gaertner's waste book

6 Waste Book No. 9, May 1894.
Pages 118-125.

Waste Book No. 11, January 1 - April 6, 1894.
Pages 268-400.
Eight pages of notes inserted between pages 335-336.

Waste Book No. 12, 1894.
Pages 104-107, 116-119.

Waste Book No. 13, April 1 - December 31, 1894.
Pages 1-399.
Index follows page 399.

Waste Book No. 14, January - December 1894.
Pages 2-3, 10-41, 200-213 [Actually goes only to page 33].

Waste Book of Gaertner [no number], January - December 1894.
Pages 36-79, 138-159, 200-233.

7 Waste Book No. 15, January 1 - October 1, 1895.
Pages 1-419.
Inserted following title page:
Letter from Herring to Winlock, October 21, 1895.
Weights list of Aerodrome 5, June 10, 1895.
Drawings of Aerodromes 4 and 5.

Waste Book No. 15, January 1 - October 1, 1895.
Pages 1-419.
Inserted following title page:
Letter from Herring to Winlock, October 21, 1895.
Weights list of Aerodrome 5, June 10, 1895.
Drawings of Aerodromes 4 and 5.

Waste Book No. 14, January 1 - December 31, 1895.
Pages 4-9, 34-133.

Waste Book No. 16, May 20-November 8, 1895.
Pages 1-159.

Waste Book of Gaertner [no number], January 26 - September 1, 1895.
Pages 80-137, 160-197, 234-419.
Letter from Langley to Winlock, March 31, 1895, inserted between pages 299-300.
Letter from Langley to G.L. Fowler, December 21, 1897 inserted between pages 317-318.

Waste Book No. 12, January 1 - December 31, 1895.
Pages 34-65, 124-179.
Index to Waste Book No. 15 follows page 179

8 Waste Book of E.C. Huffaker.
Pages 1-439.
Index follows page 439.
Waste Book of E.C. Huffaker
Pages 1-439.
Index follows page 439.
Aerodrome No.6 weight list inserted at page 1.
Letter from Langley to Huffaker inserted at page 46.
Hand-drawn chart with water depths indicated, page 231 (Potomac River?)
Account of tests of Aerodromes 4 and 5, October 6, 1894, page 300.

9 Pages 2-438
Notes on test of Aerodrome No.5, December 4, 1896 inserted at page 4.
Waste Book No. 16
Pages 2-434; noted on first page:
This Waste Book is to furnish a record of the condition, weight - &c. of Aerodromes at the beginning of each month.

Data tables at pages 46, 68, and 102. Volume also includes model and parts drawings.

10 Waste Book of L.E. Emerson
Pages 2-440
Waste Book South Shed
Pages 4-439

11 Waste Book of L.C. Maltby
Pages 2-437
Waste Book of B.L. Rhinehart
Pages 4-434; working drawings from page 50.

12 Waste Book of R.L. Reed
Pages 2-439; notes of tests from small houseboat, Chopawamsic Island (Potomac river), summer of 1899.
1st Draft Experiments in Aerodynamics (waste book of J.E. Curtis). Pages 1-346

13 Special Order Book (copies of work orders)
Pages 1-17
Waste Book of C.M. Manly
Pages 2-440; entries end following page 128.
Includes memoranda and letters from S. P. Langley pasted in. Also includes loose pages of calibration charts dated 1903.

14 Waste Book of C.M. Manly
Pages 2-441, entries end following page 401.
Includes Manly's notes of test flights of Aerodromes 5 and 6 and notes dictated by S. P. Langley.
Waste Book of C.M. Manly
Pages 2-441; entries end following page 406.

15 Waste Book of C.M. Manly
Pages 2-441; entries end following page 80.
Private Waste Book
Pages 2-674.

16 Private Waste Book
Pages 1-437, entries end following page 391
Private Waste Book
Pages 2-439; entries end following page 46.

17 Private Waste Book
Pages 1-441; entries end following Page 402.

18 S. P. Langley Correspondence Book No.2
May 1899 - March 1900
Pages 1-504; index before page 1.
S. P. Langley Correspondence Book No.3
March 1900 - December 1901
Pages 1-507; index before page 1.
Volume 30 is missing as of September, 1995.
Correspondence Disbursing Clerk
January 1899 - December 1902
Pages 1 - 508.


Series II: Scrapbooks

A collection of 18 scrapbooks containing newspaper and magazine clippings on "aerial navigation". Projects by Langley, Hiram Maxim, Otto Lilienthal and many other experimenters are included. Individual volumes have pasted labels showing the year covered by the contents; some also have a date range. Where a date range is not given, it has been derived from the contents and is included here in brackets - [...]. Additional clippings are included in Series XI.


Box   

19 1893 [May 27, 1893 - February 18, 1894]

20 January 1 - June 1, 1894

21 1894 [January 20 - May 9, 1894]

22 January 1 - August 1, 1895

23 1895 [July 2, 1895 - January 8, 1896]

24 1896 May & June [May 15 - June 9, 1896]

25 1896 June-Sept [May 21 - October 2, 1896]

26 1896 January - June [January 23 - May 21, 1896]

27 1896 [June 28, 1896 - April 15, 1897]

28 1897 [January 13 - October 17, 1897]; index inserted on inside back cover.

29 Scrap Book S.I. Aerodromies [sic.]; June - December 1897 [June 29 - December 31, 1897]

30 Scrap Book S.I. Aerodromies [sic.]; 1898 [January 1 - November 16, 1898]. Table of contents on page 1. Index on inside back cover.

31 Scrap Book S.I. Aerodromics; November 1898 [October 22 - November 23, 1898]
Scrap Book S.I. Aerodromics; May - September, 1899 [March 8, 1899 - March 18, 1928]

32 Scrap Book S.I. Aerodromics; 1900 [January 20 - December 22, 1900]
Scrap Book S.I. Aerodromics; 1901 [January 5 - December 20, 1901]

33 Scrap Book S.I. Aerodromics; 1902 [January 9 - December 31, 1902]

34 Scrap Book S.I. Aerodromics; 1903 [January 15 - June 2, 1903]


Series III: Aeronautical Research and the Aerodromes

This series consists of notes, data, drawings and memoranda from Langley's aeronautical research at both the Smithsonian and the Allegheny Observatory. Subseries 2 contains material used in various Smithsonian exhibitions of the Langley Aerodromes. Other drawings are included in Series IX. Additional notes and drawings are included in Series XI.




Series III, Subseries 1:
Design and Construction

 
Box  Folder 

35 1 Aerodrome drawings (1900)
2 Aerodrome drawings - Aerodrome 5
3 Aerodrome drawings - Aerodrome A
4 Aerodrome engine drawings by William L. Speiden (1898)
5 Aerodrome project expenses prior to trial flight
6 Aerodrome tachometer instructions
7 Aerodrome weight tables
8 Aerodrome workers agreement form
9 Aeronautical data - Alleghany Whirling Table Data Trace
10 Aeronautical data - dynamic chronograph data plots
11 Aeronautical data - wind velocity data plots
12 Aeronautical work - pay voucher cards (1899-1901)
13 Aeronautical work - record of shop work voucher book (1893)
14 Aeronautical work records (1901-1902)
15 Aeronautical work - miscellaneous drawings and sketches
16 Aeronautical work - miscellaneous drawings by E. C. Huffaker
17 Aeronautical work - miscellaneous notes, memos, bills, drawings (1 of 2)
18 Aeronautical work - miscellaneous notes, memos, bills, drawings (2 of 2)

36 1 Army Board of Ordnance and Fortifications Aerodrome grant (1900)
2 Articles and clippings on aerodromes
3 Congressional Record - House debate on Aerodrome expenditures, January 27, 1904
4 Copies of material from waste books
5 Great Houseboat drawing
6 Ledger - "Tools Borrowed for Use on Langley Aerodrome" (1917-1918)
7 Manly-Balzer motor controversy - Orville Wright's account (1942)
8 Notes on experiments
9 Notes - from George Fowler's waste book
10 Notes - E. C. Huffaker
11 Notes - E. C. Huffaker - "Record of Experiments in Open Air" (September 3-12 1898)
12 Notes - L. C. Maltby's notes, journals
13 Notes - C. M. Manly's notes on the Aerodrome
14 Notes - W. C. Winlock on boilers (1894)
15 Notes - New Rubber Pull Aerodrome (1895)
16 Notes - Rubber Pull Aerodrome (1895)
17 Notes - Preparatory works done prior to the first trial of the Great Aerodrome
18 Parts lists & box contents for Aerodrome tests (June 1895)
19 Parts lists - Aerodromes 4 & 5 (July 1895)
20 Report of shop work on Aerodrome A (May 1900)
21 Reports - C. M. Manly on the Great Aerodrome (Aerodrome A)(January 1901)
22 Reports - J. E. Watkins on progress of Aerodrome work (September 1892)
23 "Rules for Workshops" (1898)
24 Specifications for houseboat


Series III, Subseries 2:
Langley Aerodrome Exhibits

 
Box  Folder 

37 1 Langley Aerodrome exhibit, general
2 Aerodrome No. 5 - reproduction for the Panama Pacific Exposition (1914)
3 Aerodrome and motor display labels and label scripts
4 Langley Aerodrome exhibit (1917)
5 Langley Aerodrome exhibit, installation of Aerodrome, general
6 Langley Aerodrome exhibit, installation of Aerodrome, East Hall (A&I bldg) arrangements
7 Langley Aerodrome exhibit, installation of Aerodrome, fabric
8 Langley Aerodrome exhibit, installation of Aerodrome,, hardware
9 Langley Aerodrome exhibit, installation of Aerodrome, varnish, dope, paint
10 Langley Aerodrome exhibit, installation of Aerodrome, wire
11 Langley Aerodrome exhibit notes from "Aerodrome Experiments" by George L. Fowler (1897) - "The Available Motors"
12 Langley Aerodrome exhibit notes from "Aerodrome Experiments" by George L. Fowler (1897) - "Balancing the Aerodrome"
13 Langley Aerodrome exhibit notes from "Aerodrome Experiments" by George L. Fowler (1897) - "Experiments with Aerostats"
14 Langley Aerodrome exhibit notes from "Aerodrome Experiments" by George L. Fowler (1897) - "Chapter 8. History of Construction of Sustaining and Guiding Surfaces of Aerodromes 4, 5 and 6"
15 Langley Aerodrome exhibit notes from "Aerodrome Experiments" by George L. Fowler (1897) - "History of Launching Apparatus and Field Trials"
16 Langley Aerodrome exhibit notes from "Aerodrome Experiments" by George L. Fowler (1897) - "The Instruments Used"
17 Langley Aerodrome exhibit - rubber driven models
18 Langley-Manly-Balzer motor - texts and memos for exhibit label, 1908


Series IV, Subseries 1:
S. P. Langley Correspondence

Letters and memoranda written by and sent to S. P. Langley. Most of the correspondence deals with the aeronautical projects, though some non-aeronautical letters, like Langley's notes on making coffee, were included in the files. Langley's official correspondence as Secretary of the Smithsonian is part of the Smithsonian Institution Archives' Official Records of the Smithsonian Institution (Record Unit 34); his personal correspondence is included in the Smithsonian Institution Archives' Samuel P. Langley Papers, 1867-1906 (Record Unit 7003). Additional correspondence can be found in Series IX.

The material is arranged alphabetically by the name of the correspondent.


Box  Folder 

38 1 Partial listing of Langley correspondence (1890-1907)
2 Cleveland Abby, U.S. Signal Office (1887-1891)
3 American Iron and Steel Works, Jones & Laughlins, Ltd (1887)
4 American Tube Works (1892)
5 F.W. Breary, A‘ronautical Society of Great Britain (1887)
6 Cole & Reinhart (nd)
7 George E. Curtis, US Signal Office (1887)
8 Duryea Motor Wagon Co. (1898)
9 Charles H. Emerson (1892)
10 Captain Louis Ferdinand Ferber, Laboratoire des Recherches Relatives ˆ l'AŽrostation Militaire (1905)
11 George L. Fowler (1897-1898)
12 George Brown Goode (Smithsonian Institution), 1895
13 Gen. A.W. Greely, U.S. Signal Office (1889)
14 F. W. Gruner (1892)
15 Augustus Herring (1895)
16 Lodewyck Hoornbeek, Industrial Investment & Development Co. (1899)
17 E. C. Huffaker (1891)
18 Professor Hutchins (1891)
19 Kainz Motor correspondence (1900)
20 Charles, Comte de Lambert (1891)
21 John W. Langley (1891)
22 Mary Williams Langley (SPL's mother)(1894)
23 Charles M. Manly (Smithsonian Institution)(1899-1900)
24 O. J. Mason (1893)
25 Hiram Maxim (1891)
26 William McNamara (1892)
27 James Means (1895-1897)
28 E. D. Meier, Diesel Motor Company of America (1898)
29 Merchant & Co. (1890)
30 Monier, Seitert, & Pommeret (1892-1900)
31 Mors Electricité & d'Automobiles (1900)
32 L. Moxley (1890)
33 Charles Munroe, U.S. Naval Institute (1891)
34 New York Calcium Light Co. (1890)
35 Orin Parker (1892)
36 Parvin & Co. (1890)
37 R. L. Reed (Smithsonian Institution)(1896-1900)
38 Bently L. Reinhardt (1890)
39 Scientific American Magazine (nd)
40 Charles Sparhawk (1892)
41 John Sparhawk, Jr., Franklin Institute (1891-92)
42 Edward E. Spencer (1892)
43 Henry E. Sprague, Alliance Aluminium Co., Ltd. (1890)
44 William B. Taylor (1887)
45 Frank Thomson, Pennsylvania Railroad (1887-91)
46 R. H. Thurston, Cornell University (1887-1900)
47 David P. Todd, Amherst College Observatory (1891)
48 U.S. Navy Department (1866-69)
49 William H. Wahl, Franklin Institute (1892)
50 C. B. [?] Waring (nd)
51 J. E. Watkins (Smithsonian Institution)(1890-91)
52 J. E. Watkins (Smithsonian Institution)(1892-98)
53 M. C. Winlock (Smithsonian Institution)(1891)
54 Unsigned letters to S. P. Langley (1892-96)
55 Extract of letter to an unnamed correspondent (1891)
56 Guidelines concerning S. P. Langley's correspondence (nd)
57 S. P. Langley memoranda (1891-1901)
58 S. P. Langley memorandum on the method of coffee making at the Posthof, Carlsbad (Karlsbad, Germany)(nd)


Series IV, Subseries 2:
S. P. Langley's Assistants' Correspondence

The subseries includes correspondence that Charles M. Manly and J. Elfreth Watkins sent and received on behalf of Secretary Langley and his aeronautical work. Additional Watkins correspondence can be found in Series XI.

The material is arranged alphabetically by the name of the correspondent.


Box  Folder 

C. M. Manly correspondence


39 1 Prentiss Tool & Supply Co. (1900)
2 William Roche (1903)
3 C. Fayette Taylor, MIT (1926)

J. E. Watkins correspondence


39 4 Cleveland Abbe (1890)
5 Cyrus Adler (1890-92)
6 E. P. Allen, Pittsburgh Testing Laboratory (1891)
7 Lemuel Bannister, Fuel Gas and Manufacturing Co. (1890)
8 C. [?] Barus, U. S. Geological Survey (1892)
9 James C. Bayles, Spiral Weld Tube Co. (1890)
10 Benedict & Burnham Manufacturing Co. (1890)
11 Hugo Bilgram (1891-92)
12 Robert Boyd (1892)
13 J. U. Burket & Co. (1890)
14 S. Cabot (1890)
15 Octave Chanute (1891)
16 Thomas Chatard, U. S. Geological Survey (1892)
17 Valentine Clad (Cooking Ranges and Broilers)(1892)
18 Clay & Torbensen (1890)
19 Cole & Reinhart (1890-91)
20 Correspondence with lumber dealers
21 James Dietz [?] (1891)
22 W. D. Doremus (1890-91)
23 J. H. Dow (1891)
24 James Dubois (1891)
25 P. H. Dudley (1890)
26 Charles E. Duryea (1892)
27 Eimer & Amend (1892)
28 Theodore N. Ely, Pennsylvania Railroad (1892)
29 Charles H. Emerson (1892)
30 Charles Emery [?], U. S. Revenue Marine (1891)
31 Peter Frasse & Co. (1891-92)
32 R. G. Gatling (1901)
33 Mr. Geare, (Smithsonian Institution )(1895)
34 J. W. Gibboney, Thomson-Houston Electric Co. (1890)
35 Elmer Goetz (1892)
36 William Fallock, U. S. Geological Survey (1891)
37 William D. Forbes (1890)
38 M. W. Gily (1892)
39 George Brown Goode (Smithsonian Institution)(1895)
40 Reginal[d?] Gordon (1897)
41 W. E. Gray, Holmes Fibre-Graphite Manufacturing Co. (1892)
42 Lawrence Hargrave (1891)
43 O. Harmon (1892)
44 E. H. Hawley (Smithsonian Institution)(1889)
45 Herreshoff Manufacturing Co. (1891)
46 G. F. Hohues, Plymouth Cordage Co. (1891)
47 Hotchkiss Ordnance Co., Ltd. (1891-92)
48 E. C. Huffaker (Smithsonian Institution)(nd)
49 J. E. Hurley (nd)
50 Elwood Ivins, Spring Garden Metal Works (1890-92)
51 John B. Jackson, U. S. Embassy, Berlin (1900)
52 A. Jacobi and Co. (1892)
53 W. Jessop & Sons, Ltd. (1891)
54 Andrew Joyce's Sons Carriage Builders (1891)
55 A. Kastelic, Venezuelan National Railroad (1890)
56 J. M. Kavanagh (1892)
57 Keen & Hagerty Manufacturers (1891-92)
58 O. W. Ketchum (1891)
59 J. R. Kynett (1892)
60 John W. Langley (1891)
61 John S. Leng's Son & Co. (1890)
62 William Magoffin (nd)
63 L. C. Maltby, (Smithsonian Institution)(1891)
64 E. J. Manville Machine Co. (1890)
65 Joseph B, Marvin, U. S. Patent Office (1892)
66 Mr. Maynard, (Smithsonian Institution)(1899)
67 Memorandum from unnamed Smithsonian employee (nd)
68 Merchant & Co. (1890)
69 Monier, Seitert & Pommeret (1892)
70 Alfred F. Moore (1892)
71 National Pipe Bending Co. (1891-92)
72 James L. Norris (1891)
73 Charles H. Ourand (1891)
74 J. C. Pattison, Pope Manufacturing Co. (1895)
75 Philadelphia Charcoal Fuel Co. (1892)
76 Postmaster, Chester PA (1892)
77 Postmaster, New Haven CT (1892)
78 J. E. Praul (1892)
79 H. G. Prout, "The Railroad Gazette" (1892)
80 Randolph and Clowes (1891)
81 Bently Reinhardt (1895)
82 B. L. Rinehart (1895-97)
83 George W. Robertson (1892-99)
84 Romeike Bureau of Press Cuttings (1890)
85 T. W. Scott (1892)
86 S. Shiels (1891)
87 George F. Simonds (1891)
88 M. L. Sperry, Scovill Mfg. Co. (1890)
89 J. J. Suckert, National Ice Machine Co. (1895)
90 D. Sulzberger (1892)
91 F. T. Tapley, Ashcroft Manufacturing Co. (1891)
92 W. H. Travis (1890)
93 Charles Vagt (1891)
94 D. Van Nostrand Co. (1892)
95 William H. Wahl, Franklin Institute (1890)
96 H. H. Westinghouse, Westinghouse Air Brake Co. (1890)
97 W. F. Wheeler (1892)
98 I. Lloyd Wiegand (1891)
99 A. J. Wilkinson & Co. (1891)
100 Thomas Williamson (1899)
101 M. C. Winlock, (Smithsonian Institution)(1891-95)
102 W. D. Wyvill (1892)


Series IV, Subseries 3:
Miscellaneous Correspondence

 
Box  Folder 

40 1 Stephen M. Balzer engine correspondence (1898-99)
2 Stephen M. Balzer engine correspondence (1900)
3 Stephen M. Balzer engine correspondence (1901-62)
4 Octave Chanute to George Brown Goode, Smithsonian Institution (1896)
5 George Brown Goode to Mr. Wilson, Smithsonian (1894)
6 E. C. Huffaker to C. G. Abbot, Secretary of the Smithsonian (1935)
7 Samuel P. Langley (S.P.L.'s) nephew) to Dr. Howe (1918)
8 T. S. C. Lowe - Joseph Henry correspondence (1860-61)
9 Manly Family correspondence (1962)
10 Theodore Roosevelt to John D. Long, Secretary of the Navy (1898)
11 George O. Squier - Charles D. Walcott correspondence on naming the National Aeronautical Proving Ground for Langley (1916)
12 Correspondence on the Langley Aerodynamical Laboratory (1912-1914)
13 Correspondence on the Langley Papers (1907-62)


Series V, Subseries 1:
Works by S. P. Langley, 1874-1904

The manuscripts of Mechanical Flight in this subseries also include sections and revisions by Langley's assistant, Charles M. Manly. Original drawings from Mechanical Flight are listed in Series IX - Flat Boxes and Oversized Material. Additional manuscript material is included in Series XI.


Box  Folder 

41 1 The Development of the Aerodrome - typed manuscript
2 Experiments in Aerodynamics - Chapter 1 , "Introduction" - mimeo draft with corrections (1891)
3 Experiments in Aerodynamics - "Object and Character of Experiments" - mimeo draft with corrections (1891)
4 Experiments in Aerodynamics - "The Resultant Pressure Recorder" - mimeo draft with corrections (1891)
5 Experiments in Aerodynamics - "The Suspended Plane" - mimeo draft with corrections (1891)
6 Experiments in Aerodynamics - "The Counterpoised Eccentric Plane" - mimeo draft with corrections (1891)
7 Experiments in Aerodynamics - "The Plane Dropper" - mimeo draft with corrections (1891)
8 Experiments in Aerodynamics - Description of plane dropper, pp.68-73, appendices B & C - mimeo draft with corrections (1891)
9 Experiments in Aerodynamics - "Dynamometer - Chronograph" - mimeo draft with corrections (1891)
10 Experiments in Aerodynamics - "Summary" - mimeo draft with corrections (1891)
11 Experiments in Aerodynamics - "Appendix" - mimeo draft with corrections (1891)
12 Experiments in Aerodynamics - "10. The Component Pressure Recorder" - mimeo draft with corrections; also includes illustrations (1891)
13 Experiments in Aerodynamics - mimeo draft (1 of 2) pp. 1-66 (1891)
14 Experiments in Aerodynamics - mimeo draft (2 of 2) pp.14-71 (1891)

42 1 Experiments in Aerodynamics - mimeo draft with corrections (1 of 2)
2 Experiments in Aerodynamics - mimeo draft with corrections (2 of 2)
3 The Flying Machine - mimeo draft (1897)
4 Mechanical Flight - mimeo draft with corrections
5 Mechanical Flight - Chapter 7G - "History of Construction of Frame and Engines for Aerodromes No. 4, 5, & 6" - mimeo draft with corrections
6 Mechanical Flight - Final revision - Introduction and Chapter 1A
7 Mechanical Flight - Final revision - Chapter 2B "Experiments with Rubber Motor Models"
8 Mechanical Flight - Final revision - Chapter 3E "Available Motors"
9 Mechanical Flight - Final revision - Chapter 4D - "Early Steam Motor and Other Models"

43 1 Mechanical Flight - Final revision - Chapter 5G - "On Sustaining Surfaces"
2 Mechanical Flight - Final revision - Chapter 6 - "Balancing the Aerodrome", including notes of calculations
3 Mechanical Flight - section of hand-written manuscript and mimeo draft
4 Mechanical Flight - drafts, notes
5 Mechanical Flight - list of illustrations
6 Mechanical Flight - propeller calculations
7 Note on the Aerodrome of Mr. Langley Prepared for the Conversazione of the American Institute of Electrical Engineers (1901)(multiple copies)
8 Results of Observations by Me [S. P. Langley] on Aerial Propellers (1893)
9 Report of S. P. Langley (1889)
10 Articles & papers on aeronautics by S. P. Langley (1891-1906)
11 Articles & papers by S. P. Langley (non-aeronautic) 1 of 3 (1874-1884)
12 Articles & papers by S. P. Langley (non-aeronautic) 2 of 3 (1885-1898)

44 1 Articles & papers by S. P. Langley (non-aeronautic) 3 of 3 (1901-1904)
2 Notes on bird flight
3 "Supplementary Report - answers to questions [illeg.] by Secretary Langley" (1895)


Series V, Subseries 2:
Miscellaneous Manuscripts, Articles, and Notes

 
Box  Folder 

44 4 Charles Abbott - The Relations Between the Smithsonian Institution and the Wright Brothers (1928)
5 Octave Chanute - extract from Progress in Flying Machines (1892)
6 E. C. Huffaker - Experiments with Gliding Models (1899)
7 E. C. Huffaker - The Flight of Birds (nd)
8 E. C. Huffaker - report on experiments in aerodynamics (curved surfaces)(1897)
9 E. C. Huffaker - On Soaring Flight, manuscript, notes, drawings (nd)
10 Charles M. Manly - The Langley Machine at Hammondsport, galley proofs (nd)
11 Memorandum on a paper by Hiram Maxim (nd)
12 Walter Regan - The Langley Medal, radio script (1938)
13 Mr. Maynard - essay on Langley's aeronautical work (1905)
14 James A. Hoyt - The Past is Prologue (biographical sketch of Charles M. Manly)(1951)


Series VI: Photographs

Several file folders of photographs were found with the papers; others were found with additional Langley material included as Series XI. In addition, the Archives Division's photographic collection holds a number of Langley photographs, which may be researched through the Division's image database. Other photographs are held in the Langley folders in the Aircraft and Biographies Series Technical Files. Subject listings for these photographs may be found in the appendix. Another collection, the Air Museum Photography Collection (Acc. XXXX-0572) contains 30 8x10 glass negatives of Langley photographs.


Box  Folder 

45 1 S. P. Langley portraits
2 Aerodromes Exhibit, National Museum, Arts & Industries Building
3 Aerodrome A ("Great Aerodrome", "Large Aerodrome")
4 Aerodrome A, rebuilt by Glenn Curtiss (1914) - negative
5 Aerodrome & Quarter Scale Model. Photographs by Thomas W. Smillie, January 1900. From Waste Book Volume 26 (see also Box 56)
6 Aerodrome Launching Apparatus
7 Steam model Aerodrome (c.1892-93)
8 Aerodrome No. 5
9 Aerodrome No. 5, 1st flight, May 6, 1896. Photographs by Alexander Graham Bell
10 Aerodrome No. 5, 1st and 2nd flights, May 6, 1896. Photographs by F. E. Fowle
11 Aerodrome No. 5, chart of flight of November 28, 1896
12 Ladder kite (1896) cyanotypes
13 Quarter-Size Aerodrome (1900-01)
14 Quarter-Size Aerodrome, August 8, 1903 flight
15 Quarter-Size Aerodrome Motor cyanotype
16 Unidentified model in flight


Series VII: Trade Catalogues and Ephemera

A carton of material, mainly trade catalogues and price lists from various suppliers and dealers, was found stored with the Aerodrome A at the Museum's Paul E. Garber Facility in Suitland, Maryland with some evidence that it had come from Langley's workshop. Also included in the carton was a small piece of stained wood and a sheet of mica; both were transferred to the Museum's Aeronautics Division.


Box  Folder 

46 1 Corbin Cabinet Locks Catalogue (1907)
2 Crane Co. Steam Goods Catalogue (1908)
3 Department of Agriculture Bulletin
4 Furniture Catalogues
5 Hardware catalogues and brochures

47 1 Lunkenheimer Fittings Catalogue
2 Machine tools catalogues
3 Nursery catalogues
4 Plumbing supplies and fittings catalogues
5 Smithsonian Institution publications (1908)
6 Specifications for Buoys and Appendages, U. S. Lighthouse Establishment (1898)
7 Tool catalogues
8 Wm. P. Walter's Sons Wood Workers' Tools catalogue (1885)
9 Waterman pen catalogue (nd)
10 Damaged catalogue fragments


Series VIII: Miscellaneous Files

 
Box  Folder 

48 1 Langley Aerodynamical Laboratory, 1913
2 Langley biographical material
3 Langley Collection card index (1 of 3)
4 Langley Collection card index (2 of 3)
5 Langley Collection card index (3 of 3)
6 "Langley Day", Smithsonian press release, May 6, 1912
7 Langley patents
8 Langley, miscellaneous documents salvaged from Langley Laboratory
9 Langley, miscellaneous

49 1 Congressional bills for the promotion of aerial navigation, 1895 - 1896
2 Clippings - Langley, the aerodromes, and other aircraft (1899)
3 Clippings (1886-1935)
4 Clippings, Philadelphia Bureau of Press Clippings (1898-1899)
5 Drawings, diagram of C.P. motor with rheostat
6 Drawings, Hiram Maxim's flying machine and engine drawing (1891)
7 Drawings, Vogt steam engine (1892)
8 National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics regulations (1918)
9 Papers, letters, and photograph of John A. R. Newlands
10 "Phillip's Flying Machine", article from Engineering (1893)
11 Notes on references to the literature of bird flight; aeronautics clippings
12 Notes on military captive balloons (1919)
13 Miscellaneous publications
14 Miscellaneous notes and calculations
15 Patents and patent drawings


Series IX: Flat Boxes and Oversized Material

 
Box  Folder 

50 O&F (Board of Ordnance and Fortifications) accounts, ledger, 1889-1901

51 O&F ledger, 1901

52 O&F vouchers, 1899-1900

53 Langley letter on his Aerodromics work (nd); wind velocity experiments notes

54 Pneumatics experiments notes

55 Langley Memoir on Mechanical Flight (1911), Langley Internal Work of the Wind (1893), bound journal of R. L. Reed - financial accounts and work records, 1895-1914

56 Langley article - "Manflight", Boston Evening Transcript, Jan 21, 1893; photographs of Langley rubber-pull Aerodrome models by Thomas Smillie, Smithsonian Institution

Langley Data and Drawings

Oversized material stored at the Paul E. Garber Facility, Building 12, by container.
For item listing, consult the National Air and Space Museum Archives Division's Drawings Databases


16x20 folders (16x20x1 drop front box; XXXX-0494 Box 1620)


57 1 Instruments:
Allegheny Whirling Table
2 Data:
Wind Velocity Data Plots
3 Unidentified Data Traces
4 Maps & Charts
5 Boats:
Small Houseboat
6
Great Houseboat
7 Aerodromes:
Aerodrome No. 4
8
Aerodrome No. 5
9
Aerodrome A
10 Drawings Prepared for Publications:
Wind Velocity Graphs
11 Miscellaneous / Unidentified Drawings

20x24 folders (20x24x1 drop front box; XXXX-0494 Box 2024)


58 1 Instruments:
Watkins (J. E.) Whirling Table
2
Miscellaneous Instruments
3 Data:
Anemometer Data Traces
4
Dynamic Chronograph Data Traces (1/2)
5
Dynamic Chronograph Data Traces (2/2)
6
Wind Velocity Data Plots (1/2)
7
Wind Velocity Data Plots (2/2)
8 Maps & Charts
9 Engines:
5" Cylinder Engine
10 Aerodromes:
Aerodrome No. 5
11
1/4-scale Aerodrome A
12
Aerodrome A
13 Miscellaneous / Unidentified Drawings

Oversized material


59 Engine detail and aircraft component drawings, calculations (1890-91), test results from Weather Bureau Kite Station, Arlington, Virginia (1890), photograph of Lawrence Hargrave compressed air flying machine by C. Bayless, Sydney, Australia (1890

Folders stored in Map Case Drawers

Drawings and oversized material may be subject to relocation in different cases or drawers; please consult the Archives Division staff for current location of oversized material


24x36 folders


1 Instruments:
Watkins (J. E.) Whirling Table
2 Data:
Anemometer Data Traces (1/2)
3
Anemometer Data Traces (2/2)
4 Boats:
Small Houseboat
5
Great Houseboat
6 Engines:
2-Cylinder Steam Engine
7
Experimental (4 3/16" Cylinder) Engine
8
5" Cylinder (Aerodrome A) Engine (1/2)
9
5" Cylinder (Aerodrome A) Engine (2/2)
10 Aerodromes:
1/4 scale Aerodrome A
11
Aerodrome A
12
Weight Data Sheets
13 Drawings Prepared for Publications:
Annals of the Astrophysical Observatory of the Smithsonian Institution, vol. 1 (1/2)
14
Annals of the Astrophysical Observatory of the Smithsonian Institution, vol. 1 (2/2)
15
Memoir on Mechanical Flight - Original Drawings (1/5)
16
Memoir on Mechanical Flight - Original Drawings (2/5)
17
Memoir on Mechanical Flight - Original Drawings (3/5)
18
Memoir on Mechanical Flight - Original Drawings (4/5)
19
Memoir on Mechanical Flight - Original Drawings (5/5)
20
Memoir on Mechanical Flight - Duplicate Drawings (1/4)
21
Memoir on Mechanical Flight - Duplicate Drawings (2/4)
22
Memoir on Mechanical Flight - Duplicate Drawings (3/4)
23
Memoir on Mechanical Flight - Duplicate Drawings (4/4)
24 Miscellaneous / Unidentified Drawings

36x48 folders


1 Instruments:
Allegheny Whirling Table
2
Watkins Whirling Table
3 Maps & Charts
4 Boats:
Raft
5
Small Houseboat
6
Great Houseboat (1/4)
7
Great Houseboat (2/4)
8
Great Houseboat (3/4)
9
Great Houseboat (4/4)
10 Engines:
Experimental (4 3/16" Cylinder) Engine
11
5" Cylinder (Aerodrome A) Engine
12 Aerodromes:
Aerodrome No. 0
13
Aerodrome No. 5
14
1/4 scale Aerodrome A
15
Aerodrome A
16 Miscellaneous / Unidentified Drawings

Drawings larger than 36x48 (consult Archives Division staff for current location



Series X: Shorthand Diaries

A collection of 37 notebooks containing notes in an unidentified shorthand system, dating from 1898 to 1902, with 8 notebooks bearing partial dates or undated. Most of the notebooks bear the name of G.B. Wells, a Smithsonian messenger from 1894-1903. Several of the notebooks also bear the phrase "O&F" for "Ordnance and Fortification" - Langley received grants for his aeronautical work from the U. S. Army's Board of Ordnance and Fortification. Notebooks have been numbered in pencil on inside front covers. No attempt was made to decipher the shorthand entries.


Box   

60 1. G.B. Wells; January 16, 1898
2. G.B. Wells; February 26, 1899
3. G.B. Wells; April 10, 1899
4. G.B. Wells; O&F April 11, 1899
5. G.B. Wells; O&F, Finished August 2, 1899, Commenced July 5, 1899
6. G.B. Wells; O&F, August 3, 1899 #1, Finished September 3, 1899
7. G.B. Wells; O&F, August 20, 1899 #2
8. G.B. Wells; O&F, August 29, 1899 #3
9. G.B. Wells; O&F, September 10, 1899
10. G.B. Wells; September 23, 1899, Finished October 23, 1899

61 1. G.B. Wells; October 23, 1899, Finished November 15, 1899
2. G.B. Wells; November 23, 1899; Commenced January 1, 1900, Finished January 20, 1900
3. Finished December 4, 1899
4. Heed, Jr. [?] & G.B.W. [G.B. Wells], Finished December 13, 1899
5. G.B. Wells; O&F, January 25, 1900, Finished March 22, 1900
6. Finished February 25, 1900
7. G.B. Wells; February 26, 1900, Finished April 19, 1900
8. G.B. Wells; May 2, 1900, Finished June 19, 1900
9. November 11, 1900, Fin[ished] December, 1900
10. G.B. Wells; November 15, 1900
11. G.B. Wells; Commenced June 4, 1900, Finished December 1900
12. G.B. Wells; December 30, 1900
13. G.B. Wells; February 3, 1901 - March 2, 1901
14. Finished March 23, 1901

62 1. G.B. Wells; March 23, 1901
2. Fin[ished] November 8, 1901
3. G.B. Wells; November 10, 1901, Finished December 7, 1901
4. G.B. Wells; January 19, 1902
5. G.B. Wells; April 4
6. G.B. Wells; January 12, 190]
7. No Date
8. No Date
9. No Date
10. No Date
11. No Date
12. No Date
13. No Date


Series XI: Additional Material

Several additional boxes of Langley Collection correspondence, manuscript material, drawings and photographs were found in the Museum's rare book room, the Ramsey Room, after the organization of the main collection and the publication of the collection finding aid. This additional material has been included as a separate series.


Box  Folder 

63 1 Aerodrome project - requisition vouchers (1899-1901)
2 Aerodrome project - requisition vouchers (1899-1902)
3 Biographical material - Samuel P. Langley
4 Biographical material - Charles M. Manly; ms. article by E.L. Jones
5 Clippings, 1893-1904; 1 of 4
6 Clippings, 1893-1904; 2 of 4
7 Clippings, 1893-1904; 3 of 4
8 Clippings, 1893-1904; 4 of 4

64 1 Correspondence, S.P. Langley - James T. DuBois (1898)
2 Correspondence, S.P. Langley - Charles M. Manly (1898-1899)
3 Correspondence, S.P. Langley - James Means (ND)
4 Correspondence, S.P. Langley - J.E. Watkins (1892-1900)
5 Correspondence, S.P. Langley - package of letters and drawings of engines (1900)
6 Correspondence, S.P. Langley - unidentified correspondents (1896-1898)
7 Correspondence, J.E. Watkins - Charles B. Ball (1891)
8 Correspondence, J.E. Watkins - Octave Chanute (1890-1893)
9 Correspondence, J.E. Watkins - Mendes Cohen (1891)
10 Correspondence, J.E. Watkins - Lawrence Hargrave (1891)
11 Correspondence, J.E. Watkins - Caroline Henry (1891)
12 Correspondence, J.E. Watkins - Mary A. Henry (1892)
13 Correspondence, J.E. Watkins - A. Kastelic, Venezuelan National Railroad (1891)
14 Correspondence, J.E. Watkins - William S. Rosecrans (1891)
15 Correspondence, J.E. Watkins - D. Sulzberberger (1892)
16 Correspondence, J.E. Watkins - Edward B. Wall (1893)
17 Correspondence, J.E. Watkins - M. C. Winlock (Smithsonian Institution)(1892)
18 Correspondence, miscellaneous (nd; 1893)
19 Drawings - Aerodrome A, from "Aeronautics" magazine, May 30, 1914
20 Drawings - reproductions of da Vinci aeronautical designs
21 Drawings - miscellaneous drawings
22 Manuscripts, Papers, Articles - Langley, Mechanical Flight, mimeo draft excerpt
23 Manuscripts, Papers, Articles - "The Langley Airplane", statement by Dr. Walcott (nd) - Aerodrome exhibit label
24 Manuscripts, Papers, Articles - "When Men Have Wings", Gibson Gardner, from "Technical World Magazine" (nd)
25 Manuscripts, Papers, Articles - written notes on Aerodrome design (nd)
26 Manuscripts, Papers, Articles - notebook with drawings, calculations, notes (1892)
27 Miscellaneous notes (1892-1899)
28 Miscellaneous notes, publications
29 Photographs - Aerodrome A, rebuilt by Glenn Curtiss (1914)
30 Photographs - rubber pull Aerodrome No. 26 (1889)
31 Photographs - unidentified apparatus
32 Photographs - unidentified test rig, November 27, 1897
33 Experiments in Aerodynamics - proof copy with Langley's corrections (former NASM display)

65 Scrapbook - Aeronautica [September 1890 - February 1892]


Appendix: Other Langley Collections

Langley Technical Files

The Archives Division's technical files are housed in the Archives-Library Reading Room of the Mall Museum. Material on Langley and his aerodromes are housed in folders in the Aircraft Series and in the Biographies Series. Because material from the Samuel P. Langley Collection is thought to have been transferred into the Technical Files, these file headings are included here. In the listings, "Images Available" refers to digital image files available through the Archives Division's image database; these images may be viewed in the Mall Museum and the Paul E. Garber Facility Reading Rooms (2008).

Aircraft Series Technical Files

SubjectContentsFolder Number
Langley (Samuel P.), GeneralPhotosAL-198600-80
Images available 
Langley (Samuel P.), General, NASMPhotosAL-198601-80
Photo DupesAL-198601-99
Langley (Samuel P.) Aerodrome A (Great Aerodrome, Man-Carrying Aerodrome)DocumentsAL-198603-01
PhotosAL-198603-80
NegativesAL-198603-85
Photo DupesAL-198603-99
Images available 
Langley (Samuel P.) Aerodrome A, Curtiss 1914 RebuildDocumentsAL-198605-01
PhotosAL-198605-80
Photo DupesAL-198605-96
Photo DupesAL-198605-97
Photo DupesAL-198605-98
Photo DupesAL-198605-99
Images available 
Langley (Samuel P.) Aerodrome A, NASMDocumentsAL-198607-01
PhotosAL-198607-80
Photo DupesAL-198607-99
Images available 
Langley (Samuel P.) Aerodromes, Numbered, GeneralPhotosAL-198610-80
Photo DupesAL-198610-99
Langley (Samuel P.) Aerodrome No 0 (1891)Photo DupesAL-198612-99
Images available 
Langley (Samuel P.) Aerodrome No 1 (1891)Images available 
Langley (Samuel P.) Aerodrome No 2 (1892)Images available 
Langley (Samuel P.) Aerodrome No 3 (1892)Images available 
Langley (Samuel P.) Aerodrome No 4 (1895)Images available 
Langley (Samuel P.) Aerodrome No 5 (1895-96)DocumentsAL-198622-01
PhotosAL-198622-80
TransparenciesAL-198622-90
Photo DupesAL-198622-98
Photo DupesAL-198622-99
Images available 
Langley (Samuel P.) Aerodrome No 6 (1895-96)DocumentsAL-198624-01
PhotosAL-198624-80
Photo DupesAL-198624-99
Images available 
Langley (Samuel P.) Clockwork ModelPhotosAL-198628-80
Langley (Samuel P.) Gliding Model Aerodromes (1895)Images available 
Langley (Samuel P.) Ladder Kite (1896)PhotosAL-198635-80
Photo DupesAL-198635-99
Images available 
Langley (Samuel P.) Model Aerodromes, GeneralDocumentsAL-198640-01
PhotosAL-198640-80
Photo DupesAL-198640-99
Images available 
Langley (Samuel P.) Model Aerodrome No 4 (1895)Photo DupesAL-198648-99
Images available 
Langley (Samuel P.) Model Aerodrome No 11Images available 
Langley (Samuel P.) Model Aerodrome No 13Images available 
Langley (Samuel P.) Model Aerodrome No 14Images available 
Langley (Samuel P.) Model Aerodrome No 15Photo DupesAL-198670-99
Images available 
Langley (Samuel P.) Model Aerodrome No 19PhotosAL-198678-80
Images available 
Langley (Samuel P.) Model Aerodrome No 20Images available 
Langley (Samuel P.) Model Aerodrome No 21Images available 
Langley (Samuel P.) Model Aerodrome No 22PhotosAL-198684-80
Images available 
Langley (Samuel P.) Model Aerodrome No 23PhotosAL-198686-80
Images available 
Langley (Samuel P.) Model Aerodrome No 24Images available 
Langley (Samuel P.) Model Aerodrome No 25Images available 
Langley (Samuel P.) Model Aerodrome No 26Photo DupesAL-198692-99
Images available 
Langley (Samuel P.) Model Aerodrome No 27Images available 
Langley (Samuel P.) Model Aerodrome No 28PhotosAL-198696-80
Images available 
Langley (Samuel P.) Model Aerodrome No 30Images available 
Langley (Samuel P.) Model Aerodrome No 31Images available 
Langley (Samuel P.) Proposed Man-Carrying Aerodrome (1898-99)DocumentsAL-198710-01
Photo DupesAL-198710-99
Images available 
Langley (Samuel P.) "Quarter-Size" Aerodrome (1900-01)DocumentsAL-198720-01
PhotosAL-198720-80
NegativesAL-198720-85
Photo DupesAL-198720-99
Images available 
Langley (Samuel P.) "Rubber-Pull" Model Aerodrome (1895-96)PhotosAL-198730-80
Photo DupesAL-198730-99
Images available 
Langley (Samuel P.) Whirling Arm (1888-90)PhotosAL-198740-80
Photo DupesAL-198740-99
Images available 

Biographies Series Technical Files

SubjectContentsFolder Number
Langley, Samuel Pierpont, generalDocumentsCL-094000-01
Langley, Samuel Pierpont (articles by)DocumentsCL-094000-02
Langley, Samuel Pierpont (articles by/Aero)DocumentsCL-094000-03
Langley, Samuel Pierpont (articles by/Aero)DocumentsCL-094000-04
Langley, Samuel Pierpont (articles by/Astro)DocumentsCL-094000-05
Langley, Samuel Pierpont (articles by/Astro)DocumentsCL-094000-06
Langley, Samuel Pierpont (articles by/Rocket)DocumentsCL-094000-08
Langley, Samuel Pierpont (articles by/French)DocumentsCL-094000-09
Langley, Samuel Pierpont (articles on)DocumentsCL-094000-10
Langley, Samuel Pierpont (articles on)DocumentsCL-094000-11
Langley, Samuel Pierpont (articles on)DocumentsCL-094000-12
Langley, Samuel Pierpont (articles on)DocumentsCL-094000-13
Langley, Samuel Pierpont (articles on)DocumentsCL-094000-14
Langley, Samuel Pierpont (Awards and Honors)DocumentsCL-094000-15
Langley, Samuel Pierpont (Wright Controversy)DocumentsCL-094000-16
Langley, Samuel Pierpont (Obituaries)DocumentsCL-094000-17
Langley, Samuel PierpontPhoto DupesCL-094000-40
Langley, Samuel PierpontPhotosCL-094000-80
Langley, Samuel PierpontNegativesCL-094000-85
Langley, Samuel PierpontImages available