Alfred Koestler (1934-2014) was born in Kelheim, Germany. He studied engineering for two years at the University of Stuttgart, Germany, before attending Baylor University, Texas, where he received his doctorate in experimental and industrial psychology. Koestler conducted aerospace medical research for the United States Air Force at Holloman in support of Projects Mercury, Gemini, and Apollo. He was a Research Psychologist (Physiological and Experimental) in the Comparative Psychology Division's 6571st Aeromedical Research Laboratory. He worked with comparative-experimental psychology in evaluating behavioral performance in chimpanzees in aerospace and related hazardous environments which posed risks to the military and civilian populations. His most notable work was in space decompression studies. After his work at Holloman, he taught at the University of Texas at El Paso, and then became Director of Psychological Services for Blue Bell, Inc. in Greensboro, North Carolina. In 1987 he became Vice President for Human Resources for the US Operations of the Robert Bosch Corporation.