Jet engines enabled aircraft to fly farther, faster, and at less cost than piston engine aircraft could.
Collection Item Summary:
Junkers Jumo 004 B4
Designed by Dr. Anselm Franz, the Junkers Jumo 004 was the world’s first mass-produced, operational turbojet engine. It was also the first turbojet in the world with axial-flow compressors, afterburning, and a variable area exhaust nozzle. The original 004 A model flew for the first time in 1942, but it was not suitable for production because it was too heavy and used alloys in short supply in Germany.
The 004 B production model was easier to manufacture, weighed less, and used air cooling for the combustor, turbine blades, and exhaust nozzle. The engine powered the Messerschmitt Me 262, the first operational jet fighter, and the Arado 234, the first operational jet bomber and reconnaissance airplane. Volume production of the 004 B began in early 1944. Junkers manufactured nearly 6,000 Jumo 004 engines by the end of World War II.
Transferred from the U.S. Air Force, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio
Thrust/speed:8,807 N (1,980 lb) at 8,700 rpm
Compressor:8-stage axial flow
Combustor:6 straight-through chambers
Turbine:1-stage axial flow
Manufacturer:Junkers Flugzeug und Motorenwerke A.G., Dessau, Germany
Collection Item Long Description:
Note the pull ring at the nose cone of Jumo 004. The engine could be started manually using a lawn mower–type pull cord.
National Air and Space Museum
Do not reproduce without permission from the Smithsonian Institution, National Air and Space Museum
Dr Anselm Franz
Junkers Flugzeug und Motorenwerke A.G.
Transferred from the U.S. Air Force, Wright-Patterson AFB, Ohio
Length 350 cm (137.8 in.), Diameter 75.9 cm (29.9 in.)
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National Air and Space Museum Collection
Country of Origin
- Type: Turbojet
- Thrust/speed: 8,807 N (1,980 lb) at 8,700 rpm
- Compressor: 8-stage axial
- Combustor: 6 straight-through chambers
- Turbine: Single-stage axial
- Manufacturer: Junkers Flugzeug und Motorenwerke A.G., Dessau, Germany
Explore Object Connections
The world's first operational jet fighter, the Me-262 Schwalbe, was powered by two Junkers Jumo 004 B turbojet engines.
The Arado Ar 234 B Blitz (Lightning), the world's first operational jet bomber and reconnaissance aircraft, was powere by two Junkers Jumo 004 B turbojet engines.
The National Academy of Engineering’s Draper Prize was presented to Hans von Ohain and Frank Whittle jointly for the invention of the turbo-jet engine in 1991.
The first jet engines were invented at the same time, the Whittle W.1X in Great Britain and Jumo 004B in Germany.