This is an Attitude Control Engine for the RD-107 rocket engine used on Russian and former Soviet Union launch vehicles. The RD-107 consisted of four combined main rocket engines and two smaller control engines and was used in the R-7 launch vehicle of the type that launched the Sputnik 1 satellite in 1957. The control engine shown here was part of an RD-107 engine meant for a Soyuz (SL-4) version of the rocket vehicle that was improved over the years from the R-7 vehicle.
The attitude engine is gimballed, or adjustable, and helped to make fine adjustments to steer the vehicle. This engine has been upgraded over the years and used for many different missions. This object was donated to the Smithsonian in 1999 by the Kansas Cosmosphere.