Usage Conditions May Apply Usage Conditions Apply There are restrictions for re-using this media. For more information, visit the Smithsonian's Terms of Use page. IIIF provides researchers rich metadata and image viewing options for comparison of works across cultural heritage collections. More - https://iiif.si.edu View Manifest View in Mirador Viewer Usage Conditions May Apply Usage Conditions Apply There are restrictions for re-using this media. For more information, visit the Smithsonian's Terms of Use page. IIIF provides researchers rich metadata and image viewing options for comparison of works across cultural heritage collections. More - https://iiif.si.edu View Manifest View in Mirador Viewer Usage Conditions May Apply Usage Conditions Apply There are restrictions for re-using this media. For more information, visit the Smithsonian's Terms of Use page. IIIF provides researchers rich metadata and image viewing options for comparison of works across cultural heritage collections. More - https://iiif.si.edu View Manifest View in Mirador Viewer Usage Conditions May Apply Usage Conditions Apply There are restrictions for re-using this media. For more information, visit the Smithsonian's Terms of Use page. IIIF provides researchers rich metadata and image viewing options for comparison of works across cultural heritage collections. More - https://iiif.si.edu View Manifest View in Mirador Viewer

Original Image Tube Spectrograph built in the early 1960s by W. Kent Ford, Jr., which he then used in collaboration with Vera Rubin to explore an observational problem she had developed: to determine the detailed rotational properties of galaxies. The cascaded image tube developed by Ford at the Carnegie and then manufactured by RCA improved quantum efficiency of photographic detectors by over a factor of ten and made it feasible to perform difficult observational programs like this. Analysis of observational data from this instrument led Rubin to the conclusion that there was a huge amount of unseen mass distributed throughout the visible matter in galaxies causing them to rotate like rigid bodies. This observation yielded evidence for the existence of dark matter that stimulated general acknowledgement that it forms much of the mass in the universe. For her revolutionary work, Vera Rubin was the second woman in history to be awarded the Gold Medal of England's Royal Astronomical Society.

Display Status This object is not on display at the National Air and Space Museum. It is either on loan or in storage.
Object Details
Country of Origin United States of America Type INSTRUMENTS-Scientific Manufacturer Carnegie Institution of Washington Dimensions 3-D (Approximate): 78.7 × 45.7 × 91.4cm (2 ft. 7 in. × 1 ft. 6 in. × 3 ft.)
Materials Metal case and structure
Glass optics
Electronics
Cadmiun(?) plating
Inventory Number A20050006000 Credit Line Gift of the Carnegie Institution of Washington, Department of Terrestrial Magnetism. Data Source National Air and Space Museum Restrictions & Rights Usage conditions apply
For more information, visit the Smithsonians Terms of Use.