This is a fragment of a small silicon wafer, on which are etched several integrated circuitsl, which performed the basic logic of the Apollo Guidance Computer. Creating an integrated circuit was a multi-step proces. A whole set of circuits were made on a piece of very pure silicon, by a photo-reduction process. The individual circuits were then tested, and the wafer was scored and the chips broken off ("diced"). Finally, gold leads were attached and the device was packaged to protect it.