Dr. Nancy Grace Roman (1925-2018)

In 1961, Nancy Grace Roman was already the first Chief of Astronomy in NASA's Office of Space Science. She developed that program in a time before the second wave of the Women’s Movement in the United States began, when banks often refused women credit in their own names and there was still an active medical debate about whether women could ever physically endure spaceflight someday. But Roman opened the skies to humanity in new ways without ever leaving the ground.

She earned her Ph.D. in astronomy at the University of Chicago in 1949 and worked at the Yerkes Observatory there for six years afterward. She joined the radio astronomy group at the Naval Research Laboratory, becoming the head of the microwave spectroscopy section. As she recalled in 1980 in an oral history interview with National Air and Space Museum curator David DeVorkin, when she heard that NASA might set up a space astronomy program, she wanted to lead it: “The idea of coming in with an absolutely clean slate to set up a program that I thought was likely to influence astronomy for 50 years was just a challenge that I couldn't turn down. That's all there is to it.” She joined NASA in 1959, just after the agency’s founding.

Roman opened the skies to humanity in new ways without ever leaving the ground.

Roman was not a “hidden figure,” but rather a recognized leader in her field. As the founding chief of astronomy and solar physics, she was the first woman to hold an executive position at NASA. But she became best known as the “Mother of the Hubble Space Telescope.” She began working on the question of putting astronomical instruments into space as early as 1962, puzzling about how an accurate pointing system could be incorporated on a telescope or detector that would be small enough to be launched by the rockets of the day. Her advocacy for putting the tools of astronomy in space, beyond the blurring effects of the Earth’s atmosphere, eventually led to the Hubble Space Telescope.  


The Hubble Space Telescope has been one of the great success stories of space-based astronomy. Placed in orbit by Space Shuttle astronauts in 1990, it provided astronomers with a powerful new tool for studying the Universe.

She was a longtime friend of the Museum and a welcome contributor to the scholarly communities working on space history and space science. Even in her 80s and 90s, she frequently participated in scholarly meetings in the Washington, DC metro area.

In a coda that underscores her significance, Roman was one of the inspiring women whom MIT writer Maia Weinstock chose to depict in her “Women of NASA” LEGO kit (produced for sale by the company beginning in 2017). The white-haired plastic figurine stands next to a tiny Hubble Space Telescope, as a tribute to a career of leadership in space astronomy.


The original prototypes of the LEGO® Ideas "Women of NASA" set displayed in front of the Apollo Lunar Module in the Boeing Milestones of Flight Hall at the Smithsonian’s National Air and Space Museum.

Images taken by the Hubble Space Telescope stand not only as scientific contributions but as breathtaking visions of the beauty of our universe. The next time you see one, thank Nancy Grace Roman. 

Related Topics Astronomy Telescopes People Women
Twitter Comments? Contact Us
You may also like
Memories: 20 Years Since the Columbia STS-107 Tragedy February 01, 2023
Kalpana Chawla: The First South Asian American Woman in Space February 01, 2023
AirSpace Season 7, Ep. 3: A Picture's Worth 1000 Words January 12, 2023
R. Walter Cunningham (1932-2023) January 05, 2023