1954 to 1957, Soviet rocket designer Sergei Korolëv headed development
of the R-7, the world's first ICBM. Successfully flight tested in
August 1957, the R-7 missile was powerful enough to launch a nuclear
warhead against the United States or to hurl a spacecraft into orbit.
October 1957 the R-7 launched Sputnik, the world's first artificial
satellite. In 1961 a modified R-7 launched the first manned spacecraft,
Vostok, which carried cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin. Refined versions of
the R-7 are still in use today.
workhorse of the Soviet space program, the R-7 rocket has launched
of Art Dula